Financing K—12 Education Per pupil expenditures. Methodology These results are based upon a nationally representative sample of adults ages 18 and older and representative oversamples of the following subgroups:
All authors must have made substantial intellectual contributions, including: Those who do not meet all four criteria should be listed in the Acknowledgments section. Furthermore, the ICJME recommends that each author should be able to identify the specific contributions of their co-authors.
The list of persons who qualify as authors and the order listed must be established at the time of original submission. Any change to authorship after submission is highly discouraged; however, if needed, see section Changes to authorship after submission.
Authors may indicate two authors in the byline who contributed equally " " next to their names and " These authors contributed equally to the work" at the end of the Title Page.
Please note, however, that this will not change how the authors appear in future citations to the article. Manuscripts are received with the understanding that they have been written by the authors; ghostwritten papers are unacceptable see Cullen D: Ghostwriting in scientific anesthesia journals.
Guest authorship and gift authorship are similarly unacceptable see Rennie D, Flanagin A: Role of the Corresponding Author Anesthesiology takes very seriously the responsible conduct of research. Each manuscript must have a single Corresponding Author who is accountable for the research and the reporting.
Upon submission, the Corresponding Author is required to attest to the validity and legitimacy of the data and interpretation, on Should public figures be accountable for of all authors who are also responsible for the validity and legitimacy of the data and interpretation.
The Corresponding Author is responsible for ensuring that all authors meet the criteria for authorship, have reviewed and approved the manuscript and have completed the conflict of interest disclosures.
If the manuscript is accepted, the same corresponding author is the primary contact during the production, publication, and postpublication stages, including reviewing and approving the proof and for all other publication matters. The Corresponding Author must also be available after publication to respond to critiques of the work and to cooperate with any requests from the journal for data or additional information should questions about the manuscript arise after publication.
This latter responsibility is an enduring one, as questions may arise years after the submission and publication of a manuscript. The Corresponding Author should have sufficient and ongoing accountability and availability for the research and publication.
Each manuscript must have one and only one designated Corresponding Author. The manuscript will be returned without assessment if more than one author is designated as the corresponding author.
The role of the Corresponding Author is one of scholarly integrity, in which the Corresponding Author makes a number of statutory and ethical statements on behalf of all authors. Although there are certain administrative roles of the Corresponding Author, these cannot be separated from the other responsibilities, or delegated.
Each manuscript should also have the same Corresponding Author throughout the submission, publication, and post-publication process. The designated corresponding author must be the person who signs the cover letter and all communications for all iterations and all phases of the manuscript.
Group Authorship When authorship is attributed to a group in the byline, all members of the group must meet the full criteria for authorship as described above. Manuscripts may be held until all authors have verified authorship and confirmed that they have seen the submitted manuscript.
Group authorship requires the same level of participation as principal authorship. Anyone listed as an author must meet all four criteria for authorship, and all others are to be listed as collaborators. Non-authors members of the Group should be listed as Collaborators in the Acknowledgment section.
It is important to separately identify Group authors and non-author collaborators. While there is no limit on the number of authors listed in the byline for an original investigation provided each author meets all authorship criteriaa long author list may not fit in the space for the author byline.
In this case, other options include a. A Research Group name only in the byline and a list of the individual group authors in the article Acknowledgment section along with their affiliations, contributions, and conflicts of interest disclosures. In PubMed, the Group name is listed and all authors are listed in the order they appear in the Acknowledgment section.
Some named authors in the byline, in combination with a Research group.
Since all members of the Research Group must be qualified authors, and all meet authorship criteria, the byline is Individual Authors A, B, C, etc "and" a Research Group.
All members of the Research Group are authors as designated by "and" the Research Group byline. The name of the Research Group and the byline authors and the non-byline authors in the Group are listed in the Acknowledgment section at the end of the article, along with their affiliations, contributions, and conflicts of interest disclosures.
Non-author members of the Research Group may be designated as Collaborators and listed in the Acknowledgments section of the article. In PubMed, the authors named in the byline and the individual non-byline authors in the Research Group are listed as authors along with the Group Name.
Group Collaborators Those members of a group that do not meet all of the criteria for authorship may be listed as collaborators provided that they substantially contributed to the work reported in the manuscript. These members will be listed as collaborators in PubMed and in the published article.
Collaborator names and degrees should be listed in an appendix.Revised 7/1/ Revision highlights: 1. The maximum length for Structured Abstracts has been increased to words from words, specifically to include descriptive statistics (numerical results) in the Results section of the Abstract.
Cell was launched in as the "journal of exciting biology." Now a part of Cell Press, a family of scientific journals, Cell is committed to building on the journal's legacy and reputation for publishing need-to-know conceptual advances in biomedical science and to providing authors with a fast, fair, informed, and responsive review ashio-midori.com maintains editorial independence from its.
It is the responsibility of professional athletes to act as role models, because so many people and children look up to them. Because of the fact that athletes are so much in the public eye, they automatically become role models for people and, more importantly, for kids.
Bermuda's Education in Public and Private Schools After secondary schooling at home or abroad, those qualified go overseas to universities.
By Keith Archibald Forbes (see About Us) exclusively for Bermuda Online. There are schools in every one of the nine Bermuda Parishes.. Introduction. This Working Papers Series disseminates the findings of work in progress to encourage discussion and exchange of ideas social development issues.
The papers carry the names of the authors and should be cited accordingly. The public should care about any public servant’s integrity. It should therefore care about deceit or fraud of any kind. Cheating on one’s spouse is not more serious than taking a bribe.