In Erikson's model the crisis is intimacy versus isolation. In the Bingham-Stryker model the crisis is emotional and financial self-sufficiency. The difference may lie in gender expectations. Boys are expected to become self-sufficient; the male crisis is one of establishing intimacy.
Micki Caskey, Vincent A. Early adolescence is a distinct period of human growth and development situated between childhood and adolescence. During this remarkable stage of the life cycle, young adolescents, to year-olds, experience rapid and significant developmental change.
Understanding and responding to the unique developmental characteristics of young adolescents is central among the tenets of middle level education.
Tenets of This We Believe addressed: Educators who value working with this age group and are prepared to do so Curriculum that is relevant, challenging, integrative, and exploratory Organizational structures that support meaningful relationships and learning During the 20th century, early adolescence gained acceptance as a distinctive period of development.
Stanley HallAmerican psychologist, identified early adolescence i. Hall's study of adolescence captured not only the interest of scholars, but also the public Arnett, Other notable psychologists and theorists Flavell, ; Havighurst, ; Piaget,advanced the credibility of early adolescence and developmental stage theory.
Donald Eichhorna founder of the middle school, highlighted the importance of considering young adolescents' developmental characteristics when planning curriculum, instruction, and assessment and organizing the environment of the school.
Professional organizations Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, ; National Association of Secondary School Principals, ; National Middle School Association,authored position statements and offered recommendations about the educational programs and practices that would address young adolescents' development.
Research suggests distinctive characteristics of young adolescents with regard to their physical, cognitive, moral, psychological, and social-emotional development, as well as spiritual development Scales, While examining these developmental characteristics of young adolescents, two cautions warrant consideration.
First, developmental characteristics are overlapping and interrelated; each affects another characteristic. These categorizations vary and are relatively arbitrary Scales, Many factors—race, ethnicity, gender, culture, family, community, environment and the like—influence development.
Cognizant of these cautions, a summary of developmental characteristics follows. Physical Developmental Characteristics Physical development refers to bodily changes including growth, improved gross and fine motor skills, and biological maturity.
In early adolescence, the young adolescent body undergoes more developmental change than at any other time except from birth to two years old. Because bones are growing faster than muscles, young adolescents often experience coordination issues.
The onset of puberty is an intense developmental period with hormones signaling the development of primary sex characteristics genitalia and secondary sex characteristics e. Girls tend to mature one to two years earlier than boys Caissy, The increased adrenal hormone production affects skeletal growth, hair production, and skin changes Dahl, The young adolescent brain undergoes remarkable physical development.
During early adolescence, synaptic pruning is actively restructuring the brain's neural circuitry Giedd, ; Nagel, The prefrontal cortex—an area of the brain that handles executive functions such as planning, reasoning, anticipating consequences, sustaining attention, and making decisions—continues to develop.
Adults can provide accurate information, respond to questions, and encourage young adolescents to consult credible resources Scales, Schools can support physical development by offering responsive educational opportunities for young adolescents.
Schools also need to provide a programs that encourage adequate exercise and healthy lifestyles, b access to plenty of water and nutritious food during the school day, c appropriate instruction concerning the risks of alcohol and drug use, teenage pregnancy, and sexually transmitted diseases.
When young adolescents avoid physical activity due to concerns about body image Milgram,teachers can incorporate movement in classroom activities, minimize peer competition, and interrupt comparisons between early and late maturing youth.
Intellectual Development Intellectual development refers to the increased ability of people to understand and reason. In young adolescents, intellectual development is not as visible as physical development, but it is just as intense Stevenson, ; Strahan et al.
Typically, young adolescents are eager to learn about topics they find interesting and useful—ones that are personally relevant Brighton, During early adolescence, youth develop the capacity for abstract thought processes Elkind, ; Flavell, ; Piaget,though the transition to higher levels of cognitive function varies considerably across individuals.
Young adolescents typically progress from concrete logical operations to acquiring the ability to develop and test hypotheses, analyze and synthesize data, grapple with complex concepts, and think reflectively Manning, Similarly, they are increasingly able to think through ideological topics, argue a position, and challenge adult directives Brighton, ; Stevenson, Professionals working in child care settings can support the social-emotional development of infants and toddlers in various ways, including interacting directly with young children, communicating with families, arranging the physical space in the care environment, and planning and implementing curriculum.
Social and emotional development is the change over time in children's ability to react to and interact with their social environment.
Social and emotional development is complex and includes many different areas of growth. Factors that Influence Children’s Social and Emotional Development. Many factors may affect the way children express their social skills or emotional competencies or the rate at which children acquire social skills or emotional competencies.
Strategies to Support Social, Emotional, and Behavioral Needs of Students Roger P. Weissberg, PhD University of Illinois at Chicago Collaborative for Academic, Social, and Emotional Learning. Social and emotional development is the change over time in children's ability to react to and interact with their social environment.
Social and emotional development is . May 31, · Socioemotional development in early childhood Early childhood presents a unique one-time opportunity for caregivers to promote healthy socioemotional development. Research has proven the importance of the first 5 years of life in shaping a child’s physical, cognitive, and .