That is mainly due to higher atmospheric attenuation loss, penetration losses, and increased absorption and scattering in rainy conditions.
In this paper we investigate the use of MIMO in the design of luminaires supporting VLC and, specifically, in enabling localization and high data rate services. Localization and transmission appear as two different problems in the communication system; however, the former is helpful to understand which is the diversity degree that the system can adopt, in order to achieve the required performance in terms of BER and data rate.
Any opinions, findings and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author s and do not necessarily reflect those of the National Science Foundation.
Indeed, while exploiting the free use of the visible light spectrum, VLC uses the directional of optical transmissions, and can provide secure transmissions. Several authors have been investigating this technique, e. As a result, network performances are strongly enhanced. As the title of this paper suggests, the proposed solution, namely LAT Localization, Access and Transmissionconsiders the following pillars: The remainder of the paper is organized as follows.
In Section 2 we present the indoor localiza- tion method, which exploits a database collecting power measurements. This method considers a PPM modulation, and shows an increase in transmis- sion rates, with no additional signal degradation.
Nu- merical results, showing the effectiveness of LAT solution for nominal use cases, are in Section 4. Finally, conclusions are drawn at the end of this paper.
It is assumed to col- lect several—power—measurements, which can be compared with realtime acquisitions. Let us consider the case with a single LED in an area e. By using only one LED, ambiguity can occur since, usually, the same energy level is detected over a circle i.
As an instance, if we consider a number of LEDs equal to M opportunely displaced over the ceiling of a room, we can gather M real-time measurements corresponding to the set of xiyi positions in the room. For M energy measurements, Exi ,yi k collected in corresponding to each xiyi position, we obtain a discrete d.
This modulation format is sufficiently simple to implement; it allows the space-time matrix to have some interesting properties and helps localization task since information is carried on delay, that is, range. Let us start from a model where the channel is close to be flat w.
The way to avoid those effects is to increase the signaling time since the consequent rate reduction may be counterbalanced by spatial diversity. We pose nT and nR as the number of LEDs and photodiodes at the transmitter and the receiver sides, respectively.
The matrix X logically describes the presence of a pulse among the time axis and on the space. In the case of four LEDs serving U users, one goal is to displace among the timeline the devices, so to improve energy efficiency by considering user position.
It follows that 8 is the sum over n of single Ru. This scenario, comprised of 4 workspaces with several chairs, has been designed via Candles software .ashio-midori.com: 3G 4G LTE Indoor Outdoor wide band MIMO Antenna for NETGEAR AirCard S ACS AC Virgin Mobile Mingle: Cell Phones & Accessories.
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(MIMO) system containing dual polarized patch antennas is used to perform wireless measurement campaigns on non- line of sight (NLOS) channels in an indoor office setting. Buy Aruba AP-ANT Dual Band Indoor Omni-Directional MIMO Antenna at Staples' low price, or read our customer reviews to learn more ashio-midori.com: $ In this paper, we have shown the feasibility of using a set of aspheric lenses to separate the 2×2 LED array beam for indoor MIMO VLC applications. A set of aspheric lenses are designed and the relative position between lenses is analyzed for better spatial diversity.
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