The convention in Virginia began its debate before nine states had approved the Constitution, but the contest was so close and bitterly fought that it lasted past the point when the technical number needed to ratify had been reached. Nevertheless, Virginia's decision was crucial to the nation. Who can imagine the early history of the United States if Virginia had not joined the union? What if leaders like George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, and James Madison had not been allowed to hold national political office?
Preamble to the U. Constitution Prior to the Constitution, the thirteen states were bound together by the Articles of Confederation. These were in essence a military alliance between sovereign nations adopted to better fight the Revolutionary War.
Congress had no power to tax, and as a result was not able to pay debts resulting from the Revolution. Madison, George WashingtonBenjamin Franklin and others feared a break-up of the union and national bankruptcy. Madison believed that the problem was not with the Articles, but rather the state legislatures, and so the solution was not to fix the articles but to restrain the excesses of the states.
The principal questions before the convention became whether the states should remain sovereign, whether sovereignty should be transferred to the national government, or whether a settlement should rest somewhere in between.
By its own Article Seventhe constitution drafted by the convention needed ratification by at least nine of the thirteen states, through special conventions held in each state. Anti-Federalist writers began to publish essays and letters arguing against ratification,  and Alexander Hamilton recruited James Madison and John Jay to write a series of pro-ratification letters in response.
It was first printed in the Daily Advertiser under the name adopted by the Federalist writers, "Publius"; in this it was remarkable among the essays of Publius, as almost all of them first appeared in one of two other papers: On November 23, it appeared in the Packet and the next day in the Independent Journal.
Outside New York City, it made four appearances in early Though this number of reprintings was typical for The Federalist essays, many other essays, both Federalist and Anti-Federalist, saw much wider distribution.
McLean announced that they would publish the first 36 of the essays in a single volume. This volume, titled The Federalist, was released on March 2, InJames Gideon published a third edition containing corrections by Madison, who by that time had completed his two terms as President of the United States.
It was much reprinted, albeit without his introduction. The first date of publication and the newspaper name were recorded for each essay. Of modern editions, Jacob E. Hamilton there addressed the destructive role of a faction in breaking apart the republic. The question Madison answers, then, is how to eliminate the negative effects of faction.
Madison defines a faction as "a number of citizens, whether amounting to a minority or majority of the whole, who are united and actuated by some common impulse of passion, or of interest, adverse to the rights of other citizens, or to the permanent and aggregate interests of the community".
Ultimately, "the most common and durable source of factions has been the various and unequal distribution of property," Madison argues Dawsonp. Since some people owned property and others owned none, Madison felt that people would form different factions that pursued different interests.
Providing some examples of the distinct interests, Madison identified a landed interest, a manufacturing interest, a mercantile interest, a moneyed interest, and "many lesser interests" Dawsonp. They all belonged to "different classes" that were "actuated by different sentiments and views," Madison insists Dawsonp.
In other words, Madison argued that the unequal distribution of property led to the creation of different classes that formed different factions and pursued different class interests.
Moreover, Madison feared the formation of a certain kind of faction.
Against "the minor party," there could emerge "an interested and overbearing majority," Madison warns Dawsonp. Specifically, Madison feared that the unpropertied classes would use their majority power to implement a variety of measures that redistributed wealth.
There could be "a rage for paper money, for an abolition of debts, for an equal division of property, or for any other improper or wicked project," Madison warns Dawsonp.
Like the anti-Federalists who opposed him, Madison was substantially influenced by the work of Montesquieu, though Madison and Montesquieu disagreed on the question addressed in this essay. He then describes the two methods to removing the causes of faction: After all, Americans fought for it during the American Revolution.
The second option, creating a society homogeneous in opinions and interests, is impracticable. Madison particularly emphasizes that economic stratification prevents everyone from sharing the same opinion. Madison concludes that the damage caused by faction can be limited only by controlling its effects.
He then argues that the only problem comes from majority factions because the principle of popular sovereignty should prevent minority factions from gaining power.
Madison offers two ways to check majority factions: Madison states, "The latent causes of faction are thus sown in the nature of man",  so the cure is to control their effects.
He makes an argument on how this is not possible in a pure democracy but possible in a republic.The Federalist Papers is the name for the 85 articles that Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay wrote collectively between the years of and These essays or articles were written in an attempt to persuade the people of New York to ratify the new United States Constitution.
The Federalist Papers are a series of 85 essays arguing in support of the United States Constitution. Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay were the authors behind the pieces, and the three men wrote collectively under the name of Publius.
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The Federalists were successful in their effort to get the Constitution ratified by all 13 states. The Federalists later established a party known as the Federalist Party.
The party backed the views of Hamilton and was a strong force in the early United States. The party, however, was short-lived, dead by . Dec 09, · Federalist Papers are important to any analysis of the U.S.
Constitution because they provided the philosophical and socio-political justification for the adoption of the Constitution. Prior to the ratification of the Constitution, the states were loosely united under the Articles of Confederation.
Hamilton published his first essay in the New York Independent Journal on October 27, The essays had an immediate impact on the ratification debate in New York and in the other states.
The 85 essays succeeded by helping to persuade doubtful New Yorkers to ratify the Constitution. Today, The Federalist Papers helps us to more. His effectiveness as an advocate of a new constitution, and of the particular constitution that was drawn up in Philadelphia in , was certainly based in a large part on his personal experience in public life and his personal knowledge of the conditions of American in " At the end of Hume's essay was a discussion that was of.