Individual[ edit ] The formalization of constructivism from a within-the-human perspective is generally attributed to Jean Piaget, who articulated mechanisms by which information from the environment and ideas from the individual interact and result in internalized structures developed by learners.
There are many different educational philosophies throughout the world, all of which are designed to promote academic and social growth in children.
Some of the most child-centered educational philosophies have their origins in the theories of child development specialists and psychologists who believe that young children learn best through play and self-discovery. These four methods all approach early learning from a developmental perspective, and stress the importance of play and self-directed exploration.
There are also several differences in the philosophies and environments of the four different methods. InFrobel created a program based on principles of early childhood specialists which became the foundation for kindergartens everywhere, as well as several educational philosophies which are the basis of many preschool and early education methods today.
Froebel asserted that young children could learn best in atmospheres that provided a stimulating and prepared environment where they could explore and learn from their own perspectives.
Key Features of Froebel Schooling Methods Froebel education stresses that parents are the first educators for children, and that there should be close links between home and school.
The main goal of a Froebel education is to teach the whole child in all developmental areas: There are four main components of the Froebel Method: The Froebel Philosophy stresses that: Froebel education believes that play is purposeful and not idle, and that meaning is created through hands-on play activities.
Another key component of a Froebel classroom is the use of the materials referred to as the Froebel Gifts and Occupations. The Froebel gifts are a series of sets specially designed materials, which provide hands-on explorations of solids, surfaces, lines, rings and points.
Children use these materials to explore principles of movement, math, and construction. The Occupations are a set of activities designed to provide further hands-on explorations and practice with skills like clay work, wood work, lacing, weaving, drawing, and cutting.
Again, these materials are designed to allow children uninterrupted periods of play where they construct their own meaning of how things work.
Strengths of the Froebel Method There are many strengths to the Froebel method. One of the main strengths for students who attend a Froebel School is that they learn to see problems from many angles and to solve them independently.
As they work with materials, they gain perseverance as they attempt to figure out how to manipulate them to create the output they want. The Froebel method also works well to encourage independence in students. Since they are used to solving problems that arise during their play, they feel confident in their ability to handle issues as they arise.
The Froebel classroom develops fine motor skills in students, which aids them with later learning and activities, such as writing and advanced art skills.
Criticisms of Froebel Education Critics of the Froebel education believed that the structure of the program was too rigid. More progressive educators modified the original program into the kindergarten that we know today, which includes more free and imaginative play.
In addition to the Froebel gifts, other unstructured materials were added such as doll houses and large blocks where children could experience more free-play and social interaction. There are also those who believe that there is too much focus on fine motor skills, and that more language, writing and reading would benefit students.
Many think that the focus on the gifts and occupations should be supplemented with more academic types of activities, reading and writing specifically, so that children who are developmentally ready for these types of activities will have the opportunity available to them.
Montessori began to develop her methods after attending pedagogy courses in Rome, and carefully observing children beginning at birth. InMontessori founded the Association Montessori Internationale to support international growth of Montessori methods and teacher education.
Montessori schools are based on the belief that children are naturally eager learners who can create meaning in a carefully prepared and supportive environment.
Key Features of the Montessori Method The Montessori approach is a child-centered one that operates on several defining principles.
The goal of a Montessori classroom is to develop the whole child, which includes physical, social, emotional and cognitive abilities. Hallmarks of Montessori include: Children of mixed ages work together in classrooms.
Younger students observe older ones, which helps to prepare them for upcoming and more challenging materials.Minister Reid Attends World’s Largest Lesson Event at the Queen’s School.
“Social Justice Math” By Donna Garner. [COMMENTS FROM DONNA GARNER — Many of us knew way back in when Obama first took office that his prime goal was to drive his social justice agenda deep into every institution in America. Unfortunately, he succeeded doing just that by forcing the Common Core Standards Initiative (CCSI) upon our nation’s schools even though Congress never.
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