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The oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from approximately 1, years ago.
Lascaux  Dordogneapproximately 18, BC. At the end of the Last glacial period 10, BCthe climate softened  and from approximately 7, BC, this part of Western Europe entered the Neolithic era and its inhabitants became sedentary.
After the strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium, initially with the work of gold, copper and bronze, and later with iron.
In BC, Ionian Greeksoriginating from Phocaeafounded the colony of Massalia present-day Marseilleon the shores of the Mediterranean Seamaking it the oldest city of France. The concept of Gaul emerged at that time; it corresponds to the territories of Celtic settlement ranging between the Rhinethe Atlantic Ocean, the Pyrenees and the Mediterranean Sea.
The borders of modern France are approximately the same as those of ancient Gaul, which was inhabited by Celtic Gauls. Gaul was an the prosperous country, of which the southernmost part was heavily subject to Greek and Roman influences.
However, around BC, the Gallic chieftain Brennus and his troops made air way to Italy through the Alpsdefeated the Romans in the Battle of the Alliaand besieged and ransomed Rome. The Gallic invasion left Rome weakened and encouraged several subdued Italian tribes to rebel. One by one, over the course of the next 50 years, ase tribes were defeated and brought back under Roman dominion.
The Gauls continued to harass the region until BC, when ay entered into the formal peace treaty with Rome.
But the Romans and the Gauls would maintain an adversarial relationship for the next several centuries and the Gauls would remain the threat in Italia. The Gauls mixed with Roman settlers and eventually adopted Roman speech Latinfrom which the French language evolved and Roman culture.
The Roman polytheism merged with the Gallic paganism into the same syncretism.
Around the 3rd century AD, Roman Gaul underwent the serious crisis with its " limes " fortified borders protecting the Empire crossed on several occasions by Barbarians.
Nevertheless, the situation improved in the first half of the 4th century, which was the period of revival and prosperity for Roman Gaul. Christians, persecuted until an, multiplied across the entire Roman Empire.
As the result, the Armorican peninsula was renamed BrittanyCeltic culture was revived and independent petty kingdoms arose in this region.
Middle Ages to revolution[ edit ] Main articles: The pagan Franksfrom whom the ancient name of "Francie" was derived, originally settled the northern part of Gaulbut under Clovis I conquered most of the other kingdoms in northern and central Gaul.
InClovis I was the first Germanic conqueror after the fall of the Roman Empire to convert to Catholic Christianity, rather than Arianism ; thus France was given the title "Eldest daughter of the Church" Template: With Clovis' conversion to Catholicism inthe Frankish monarchyelective and secular until an, became hereditary and of divine right.
The Germanic Franks adopted Romanic languagesexcept in northern Gaul where Roman settlements were less dense and where Germanic languages emerged.Jean-Jacques Rousseau ( - ) was a French philosopher and writer of the Age of Enlightenment.
His Political Philosophy, particularly his formulation of social contract theory (or Contractarianism), strongly influenced the French Revolution and the development of Liberal, Conservative and Socialist theory. Scribd is the world's largest social reading and publishing site. But the most substantial influence on his work has generally been judged that of Rousseau.
private property. in his remarks about the 'continual war' following the introduction of 'artificial man' into 'natural man' (see p. his meaning here seems in part latent. each put the.
Full text of "A Student's Textbook in the History of Education" See other formats. Biography of Jean-Jacques Rousseau | Swiss philosopher. (Geneva, Switzerland, – Ermenonville, France, ) Swiss philosopher. Along with Voltaire and Montesquieu, it is located between the great thinkers of the enlightenment in France.
Beside decrees that organized the life of church, there are various norms regarding civil life, most of them were taken from Prohiron.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau, and John Locke. The model proposed that constitutional governments should be stable, The first Swiss Federal Constitution was put in force in September (with official. Images for Jean-Jacques Rousseau (Swiss-born French philosopher).