Contrary to social evidence, feminists think males raised without fathers will treat women better. They have been denied a meaningful contact with their biological fathers, and, as a result, denied experience of traditional fatherhood. With first-hand experience of the great damage caused by divorce and family disintegration, these children have seen their fathers banished from the family home and their own contact with them greatly if not entirely reduced. Too young to understand, they are often left emotionally confused and their sense of security is severely damaged.
Political issues[ edit ] Placard showing negative effects of lack of family planning and having too many children and infants Ethiopia The birth rate is an issue of concern and policy for national governments. Some including those of Italy and Malaysia seek to increase the birth rate with financial incentives or provision of support services to new mothers.
Conversely, other countries have policies to reduce the birth rate for example, China's one-child policy which was in effect from to Policies to increase the crude birth rate are known as pro-natalist policies, and policies to reduce the crude birth rate are known as anti-natalist policies.
Measures such as improved information on birth control and its availability have achieved similar results in countries such as Iran. There has also been discussion on whether bringing women into the forefront of development initiatives will lead to a decline in birth rates.
In some countries, government policies have focused on reducing birth rates by improving women's rights, sexual and reproductive health. Typically, high birth rates are associated with health problems, low life expectancylow living standards, low social status for women and low educational levels.
Demographic transition theory postulates that as a country undergoes economic development and social change its population growth declines, with birth rates serving as an indicator. At the World Population Conference in BucharestRomaniawomen's issues gained considerable attention. Family programs were discussed, and countries drafted a World Population Plan of Action.
As part of the discussion, many countries accepted modern birth control methods such as the birth control pill and the condom while opposing abortion. Population and the need to incorporate women into the discourse were discussed; it was agreed that improvements in women's status and initiatives in defense of reproductive health and freedom, the environment, and sustainable socioeconomic development were needed.
Birth rates ranging from 10—20 births per 1, are considered low, while rates from 40—50 births per 1, are considered high. High birth rates may stress government welfare and family programs. Additional problems faced by a country with a high birth rate include educating a growing number of children, creating jobs for these children when they enter the workforce, and dealing with the environmental impact of a large population.
Low birth rates may stress the government to provide adequate senior welfare systems and stress families who must support the elders themselves. There will be fewer children and a working-age population to support an aging population.
Coercive population control[ edit ] In the 20th century, several authoritarian governments have sought either to increase or to decrease the birth rates, often through forceful intervention.
This period has later been depicted in movies and documentaries such as 4 Months, 3 Weeks and 2 DaysChildren of the Decree. These policies temporarily increased birth rates for a few years, but this was followed by a later decline due to an increased use of illegal abortion.
Given strict family-size limitations and a preference for sons, girls have become unwanted in China because they are considered as depriving the parents of the possibility of having a son.
With the progress of prenatal sex-determination technologies and induced abortion, the one-child policy gradually turned into a one-son policy.• Full report: Australia votes yes in historic marriage equality survey • Katharine Murphy: vote is an opportunity for Turnbull to show leadership • How Australia voted – the results by.
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Its purpose is to keep members informed about what the Law Society is doing, as well as publishing articles of interest to the Western Australian legal profession. Same-sex marriage has been legal in Australia since 9 December The legislation to allow same-sex marriage, the Marriage Amendment (Definition and Religious Freedoms) Act , passed the Australian Parliament on 7 December and received royal assent from the Governor-General the following day.
The law came into effect on .
Same-sex marriage has been legal in Australia since 9 December The legislation to allow same-sex marriage, the Marriage Amendment (Definition and Religious Freedoms) Act , passed the Australian Parliament on 7 December and received royal assent from the Governor-General the following day.
The law came into effect on 9 December, immediately recognising overseas same-sex . The same sex-marriage survey has provided a one-off boost to Australia Post's traditional business, which continues to be hit by a decline in "snail mail" letter volumes.