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Causes and Consequences of Violence Against Women Causes A vital part of understanding a social problem, and a precursor to preventing it, is an understanding of what causes it. Research on the causes of violence against women has consisted of two lines of inquiry: Research has sought causal factors at various levels of analysis, including individual, dyadic, institutional, and social.
Studies of offending and victimization remain conceptually distinct except in sociocultural analysis in which joint consideration is often given to two complementary processes: Many theorists and researchers have sought to answer the question, "Why does this particular man batter or sexually assault?
Among them have been biologic factors such as androgenic hormonal influences; evolutionary theo- Page 50 Share Cite Suggested Citation: Understanding Violence Against Women. The National Academies Press. Recently, researchers armed with multivariate statistical analysis have tested complex models of violence with multiple factors to explain battering McKenry et al.
Also new are integrative metatheories of intimate violence that consider the impact of historical, sociocultural, and social factors on people, including the processes whereby social influences are transmitted to and represented within individual psychological functioning, including cognition and motivation White, in press.
Many of the theories about the causes of perpetrating violence against women are drawn from the literature on aggression and general violence.
Both the research on general violence and that on violence against women suggest that violence arises from interactions among individual biological and psychosocial factors and social processes e.
Studies of male batterers have found that some batterers confine their violent behavior to their intimates but others are violent in general Fagan et al. The research suggests that, at least in some cases, there may be differences in the factors that cause violence against women and those Page 51 Share Cite Suggested Citation: Much more work is needed in order to understand in what ways violence against women differs from other violent behavior.
Such understanding will be particularly important for developing preventive interventions. Although current understanding suggests that violent behavior is not caused by any single factor, much of the research has focused on single causes.
Therefore, in the following sections several salient findings emerging from each single-factor domain are highlighted to illustrate how each contributes something to the causal nexus of perpetration of violence. They are followed by a brief review of efforts to build multifactor models.
Theories of Violent Offending Individual Determinants Evolution From an evolutionary perspective, the goal of sexual behavior is to maximize the likelihood of passing on one's genes.
This goal involves maximizing the chances that one will have offspring who themselves will survive to reproduce. In ancestral environments, optimum male and female strategies for successfully passing on one's genes often did not coincide because the amount of parental investment required by males is smaller than that required by females.
Males were best served by mating with as many fertile females as possible to increase their chance of impregnating one of them; females, who have the tasks of pregnancy and nurturing the young, are often better served by pair bonding.
Sex differences in current human mating strategies may be explained as having been shaped by the strategies that created reproductive success among human ancestors.In order to better understand how social media, HIPAA violations and compliance in your medical practice should be handled, we have put together a list of the Do’s and Don’ts of Social Media and HIPAA Compliance.
So if you don’t have a policy in place or one that is about blocking social media in the workplace, now is the time to a social media policy. That said, the NLRB case is proof that, even with “air-tight” social media guidelines, employers are still vulnerable to complaints and -- worst case scenario -- lawsuits.
Even if the sharing of this information damages your reputation or causes other harm, it is not a violation of your privacy. That requires a "reasonable expectation of privacy", which would apply if the letter was not left out in public.
Microsoft does not deny that it does audits. But a spokesperson tells Business Insider that the company has gotten less aggressive about it since Nadella took over, not more.
Recommendation: Research is needed on the consequences of violence against women that includes intergenerational consequences and costs to society, including lost productivity and the use of the criminal justice, medical, and social service systems.
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